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Analysis of oligomeric stability of insulin analogs using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

Nakazawa, Shiori, Hashii, Noritaka, Harazono, Akira, Kawasaki, Nana
Analytical biochemistry 2012 v.420 no.1 pp. 61-67
blood serum, deuterium, drugs, humans, insulin, mass spectrometry, pharmacokinetics, rapid methods, subcutaneous injection
Insulin analog products for subcutaneous injection are prepared as solutions in which insulin analog molecules exist in several oligomeric states. Oligomeric stability can affect their onset and duration of action and has been exploited in designing them. To investigate the oligomeric stability of insulin analog products having different pharmacokinetics, we performed hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX/MS), which is a rapid method to analyze dynamic aspects of protein structures. Two rapid-acting analogs (lispro and glulisine) incorporated deuteriums more and faster than recombinant human insulin, whereas a long-acting analog (glargine) and two intermediate-acting preparations (protamine-containing formulations) incorporated them less and more slowly. Kinetic analysis revealed that the number of slowly exchanged hydrogens (Dₛ) (k<0.01min⁻¹) accounted for the difference in HDX reactivity among analogs. Furthermore, we found correlations between HDX kinetics and pharmacokinetics reported previously. Their maximum serum concentration (Cₘₐₓ) was linearly correlated with Dₛ (r=0.88) and the number of maximum exchangeable hydrogens (D∞) (r=0.89). The maximum drug concentration time (tₘₐₓ) was also correlated with reciprocals of Dₛ and D∞ (r=0.86 and r=0.96, respectively). Here we demonstrate the ability of HDX/MS to evaluate oligomeric stability of insulin analog products.