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The bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, as an insect pathogen
- Berry, Colin
- Journal of invertebrate pathology 2012 v.109 no.1 pp. 1-10
- Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Blattaria, Culicidae, Lysinibacillus sphaericus, bacteria, disease vectors, evolution, industry, insect larvae, insect pests, insecticidal properties, insecticides, pathogens, proteins, toxins, vegetative growth
- Since the first bacteria with insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae were reported in the 1960s, many have been described, with the most potent being isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis or Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly and best known as Bacillus sphaericus). Given environmental concerns over the use of broad spectrum synthetic chemical insecticides and the evolution of resistance to these, industry placed emphasis on the development of bacteria as alternative control agents. To date, numerous commercial formulations of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) are available in many countries for control of nuisance and vector mosquitoes. Within the past few years, commercial formulations of L. sphaericus (Ls) have become available. Because Bti has been in use for more than 30years, its properties are well know, more so than those of Ls. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarise the most critical aspects of Ls and the various proteins that account for its insecticidal properties, especially the mosquitocidal activity of the most common isolates studied. Data are reviewed for the binary toxin, which accounts for the activity of sporulated cells, as well as for other toxins produced during vegetative growth, including sphaericolysin (active against cockroaches and caterpillars) and the different mosquitocidal Mtx and Cry toxins. Future studies of these could well lead to novel potent and environmentally compatible insecticidal products for controlling a range of insect pests and vectors of disease.