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Combined effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, propionate, and acetate on milk fat yield and composition in dairy cows
- Maxin, G., Glasser, F., Hurtaud, C., Peyraud, J.L., Rulquin, H.
- Journal of dairy science 2011 v.94 no.4 pp. 2051-2059
- Holstein, acetates, conjugated linoleic acid, dairy cows, diet, dry matter intake, fatty acid composition, isomers, lactation, lipid content, lipogenesis, milk, milk fat, milk fat yield, nutrients, propionic acid, secretion
- Diets inducing milk fat depression (MFD) are known to alter ruminal lipid metabolism, leading to the formation of specific isomers [such as trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)] that inhibit milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows. However, ruminal outflow of these isomers does not fully account for the decreases in milk fat synthesis observed during diet-induced MFD. The high-concentrate diets inducing MFD also induce a greater production of propionate, suggesting a possible inhibition of milk fat by propionate associated with trans-10,cis-12-CLA during MFD. The present experiment aimed to study the combined effects of propionate and trans-10,cis-12-CLA (both inhibitors of milk fat synthesis) on milk fat secretion and the effects of the combination of 2 nutrients with opposite effects (acetate and propionate). Six Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods (14 d of nutrient infusion). The treatments were control; ruminal infusion of 1,500 g/d of acetate (A); ruminal infusion of 800 g/d of propionate (P); duodenal infusion of 1.60 g/d of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA); ruminal infusion of 750 g/d of acetate+400 g/d of propionate (A+P); and duodenal infusion of 1.60 g/d of trans-10,cis-12-CLA+ruminal infusion of 800 g/d of propionate (CLA+P). The amounts of nutrients infused were chosen to induce a similar variation in milk fat content. Treatments A and P decreased dry matter intake. Compared with the control, P and CLA treatments decreased milk fat content and yield by 9% and 15% on average. Treatment A increased milk fat content by 6.5% but did not modify milk fat yield (because of a decrease in milk yield). The effects of A and P, and CLA and P on milk fat and fatty acid percentages and yield were additive (A+P and CLA+P treatments). With a same dose of trans-10,cis-12-CLA, the additional supply of propionate induced a decrease in milk fat 40% higher than that induced by trans-10,cis-12-CLA alone. The milk fatty acid profile obtained with CLA+P was similar to those observed with high-concentrate diets inducing MFD. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the effects of the 3 nutrients were additive on mammary lipogenesis, regardless of their separate effects. We also show that propionate could contribute to the milk fat reductions unaccounted for by trans-10,cis-12-CLA during MFD induced by high-concentrate diets.