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Combined effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, propionate, and acetate on milk fat yield and composition in dairy cows

Maxin, G., Glasser, F., Hurtaud, C., Peyraud, J.L., Rulquin, H.
Journal of dairy science 2011 v.94 no.4 pp. 2051-2059
Holstein, acetates, conjugated linoleic acid, dairy cows, diet, dry matter intake, fatty acid composition, isomers, lactation, lipid content, lipogenesis, milk, milk fat, milk fat yield, nutrients, propionic acid, secretion
Diets inducing milk fat depression (MFD) are known to alter ruminal lipid metabolism, leading to the formation of specific isomers [such as trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)] that inhibit milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows. However, ruminal outflow of these isomers does not fully account for the decreases in milk fat synthesis observed during diet-induced MFD. The high-concentrate diets inducing MFD also induce a greater production of propionate, suggesting a possible inhibition of milk fat by propionate associated with trans-10,cis-12-CLA during MFD. The present experiment aimed to study the combined effects of propionate and trans-10,cis-12-CLA (both inhibitors of milk fat synthesis) on milk fat secretion and the effects of the combination of 2 nutrients with opposite effects (acetate and propionate). Six Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods (14 d of nutrient infusion). The treatments were control; ruminal infusion of 1,500 g/d of acetate (A); ruminal infusion of 800 g/d of propionate (P); duodenal infusion of 1.60 g/d of trans-10,cis-12-CLA (CLA); ruminal infusion of 750 g/d of acetate+400 g/d of propionate (A+P); and duodenal infusion of 1.60 g/d of trans-10,cis-12-CLA+ruminal infusion of 800 g/d of propionate (CLA+P). The amounts of nutrients infused were chosen to induce a similar variation in milk fat content. Treatments A and P decreased dry matter intake. Compared with the control, P and CLA treatments decreased milk fat content and yield by 9% and 15% on average. Treatment A increased milk fat content by 6.5% but did not modify milk fat yield (because of a decrease in milk yield). The effects of A and P, and CLA and P on milk fat and fatty acid percentages and yield were additive (A+P and CLA+P treatments). With a same dose of trans-10,cis-12-CLA, the additional supply of propionate induced a decrease in milk fat 40% higher than that induced by trans-10,cis-12-CLA alone. The milk fatty acid profile obtained with CLA+P was similar to those observed with high-concentrate diets inducing MFD. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the effects of the 3 nutrients were additive on mammary lipogenesis, regardless of their separate effects. We also show that propionate could contribute to the milk fat reductions unaccounted for by trans-10,cis-12-CLA during MFD induced by high-concentrate diets.