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Effects of a rumen-protected mixture of conjugated linoleic acids on hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in dairy cows

Schlegel, G., Ringseis, R., Windisch, W., Schwarz, F.J., Eder, K.
Journal of dairy science 2012 v.95 no.7 pp. 3905-3918
DNA microarrays, Holstein, adverse effects, beta oxidation, biopsy, carnitine, cholesterol, cholesterol metabolism, conjugated linoleic acid, dairy cows, early lactation, energy balance, enzymes, genes, lipid content, lipogenesis, lipoproteins, liver, milk, milk fat, milk fat yield, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, rodents, transporters, triacylglycerols
Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduces milk fat content in dairy cows and, thus, may be a useful dietary strategy to improve energy balance during early lactation. The present study was performed to investigate whether supplementation of CLA could have adverse effects on hepatic lipid metabolism such as observed in rodents. For this aim, 40 Holstein cows were allotted to 2 groups, which were fed daily 172g of either a CLA-free, rumen-protected control fat (control group) or a rumen-protected CLA fat supplying 4.3g of cis-9,trans-11 CLA and 3.8g of trans-10,cis-12 CLA per day (CLA group). To identify potential changes of lipid metabolism, expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined in liver biopsy samples taken at wk 5 of lactation, using a whole-genome gene chip. In the CLA group, milk fat content and daily milk fat yield were lower than in the control group. Milk yield was higher, whereas fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk were lower in the CLA group than in the control group. The CLA group, moreover, had an improved energy balance. To study potential effects of CLA on hepatic lipid metabolism, we considered 6 genes encoding fatty acid transporters, 7 genes involved in intracellular fatty acid transport, 21 and 7 genes, respectively, involved in mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation, 6 genes of carnitine metabolism, 3 genes of ketogenesis, 21 genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis, 17 genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, and 20 genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism. None of these genes was differentially regulated between the CLA group and the control group. Gene chip data were confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis, which revealed no difference in the expression of key enzymes of various pathways such as lipogenesis, β-oxidation, and ketogenesis between the 2 groups of cows. In line with those findings, concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol in liver and plasma were not different between the 2 groups of cows. In conclusion, the present study shows that CLA supplementation at a dose effective for milk fat depression does not induce adverse effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in dairy cows.