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Role of antigens and virulence factors of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in its pathogenesis

Kaur, Jasmine, Jain, S.K.
Microbiological research 2012 v.167 no.4 pp. 199-210
Salmonella Typhi, antigens, disease control, genes, humans, pathogenesis, pathogenicity islands, pathogens, type III secretion system, typhoid fever, virulence
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the aetiologic agent of typhoid fever, is a human restricted pathogen. The molecular mechanism of Salmonella pathogenicity is complex. The investigations of the molecular mechanisms of Salmonella virulence factors have shown that pathogenic Salmonella spp. are distinguished from their non-pathogenic relatives by the presence of specific pathogenicity genes, often organized in so-called pathogenicity islands (PIs). The type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins encoded by two Salmonella PIs (SPIs) are associated with the pathogenicity at molecular level. The identification of T3SS has provided new insight into the molecular factors and mechanisms underlying bacterial pathogenesis. The T3SS encoded by SPI-1 contains invasion genes; while SPI-2 is responsible for intracellular pathogenesis and has a crucial role for systemic S. enterica infections. These studies reveal a complex set of pathogenic interferences between intracellular Salmonella and its host cells. The understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella evade the host defense system and establish pathogenesis will be important for proper disease management.