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Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of dihydrospinochalcone-A isolated from Lonchocarpus xuul Lundell by NO production: Computational and ex vivo approaches

Avila-Villarreal, Gabriela, Hernández-Abreu, Oswaldo, Hidalgo-Figueroa, Sergio, Navarrete-Vázquez, Gabriel, Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola, Peña-Rodríguez, Luis M., Villalobos-Molina, Rafael, Estrada-Soto, Samuel
Phytomedicine 2013 v.20 pp. 1241-1246
Lonchocarpus, active sites, antagonists, antihypertensive effect, aorta, atropine, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, chalcone, crystal structure, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelium, guanylate cyclase, heart rate, hydrogen bonding, indomethacin, mechanism of action, nitric oxide, norepinephrine, oral administration, potassium channels, rats, systolic blood pressure, vasodilation
Current work was conducted to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of dihydrospinochalcone-A (1) and isocordoin (2), compounds type chalcone isolated from Lonchocarpus xuul, an endemic tree of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Compounds 1 and 2 were found to induce significant relaxant effect in a concentration-dependent manner on aortic rat rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (NA, 0.1μM). Compound 1 was the most active and its effect was endothelium-dependent (Emax=79.67% and EC50=21.46μM with endothelium and Emax=23.58% and EC50=91.8μM without endothelium, respectively). The functional mechanism of action for 1 was elucidated. Pre-incubation with l-NAME (unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), indomethacin (unspecific COX inhibitor), ODQ (soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), atropine (cholinergic receptor antagonist), TEA (unspecific potassium channel blocker) reduced relaxations induced by 1. Oral administration of 50mg/kg of compound 1 exhibited significant decrease in diastolic and systolic blood pressure in SHR rats. The heart rate was not modified. Compound 1 was docked with a crystal structure of eNOS. Dihydrospinochalcone-A showed calculated affinity with eNOS in the C1 binding pockets, near the catalytic site; Trp449, Trp447 and His373 through aromatic and π–π interactions, also His463 and Arg367 are the residues that make hydrogen bonds with the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups.In conclusion, dihydrospinochalcone-A induces a significant antihypertensive effect due to its direct vasorelaxant action on rat aorta rings, through NO/sCG/PKG pathway and potassium channel opening.