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Occurrence and removal of parasites, enteric bacteria and faecal contamination indicators in wastewater natural reclamation systems in Tenerife-Canary Islands, Spain

Abreu-Acosta, Néstor, Vera, Luisa
Ecological engineering 2011 v.37 no.3 pp. 496-503
Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cryptosporidium, Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, Giardia, Salmonella, animals, coliform bacteria, coliphages, constructed wetlands, ecosystem engineering, effluents, eggs, feces, helminths, intestinal microorganisms, islands, pathogens, ponds, subsurface flow, wastewater, wastewater treatment, water reservoirs, Spain
Two wastewater natural reclamation systems (WWNRS) have been compared regarding their efficiencies on faecal bacteria removal and the persistence of enteric pathogens. These WWNRS are constituted of a combination of anaerobic treatment, small sub-surface flow constructed wetland refilled of volcanic ashes and a final pond as water reservoir. Faecal coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, somatic coliphages, Salmonella sp., Campylobacter sp., Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp. and helminth eggs were analyzed in constructed wetlands inlet and outlet and storage pond effluent. Low numbers of protozoan positive samples (4.54% in Albergue de Bolico for both protozoa, and 19.05% in Carrizal Alto for Giardia sp.) and absence of helminth eggs were found. Both systems demonstrated efficient reduction of faecal contamination indicators in the wastewaters (removal rates values of 2log₁₀). The natural systems for wastewater treatment used to be efficient in Salmonella abatement, this fact was confirmed in the reported systems, since enterobacteriaceae were found in only one of the effluents. Campylobacter species associated with the access of animals to storage ponds were detected in the reclaimed water.