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Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in constructed wetlands with bio-contact oxidation as pretreatment

Wang, Ling, Li, Tian
Ecological engineering 2011 v.37 no.8 pp. 1225-1230
DNA primers, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, constructed wetlands, genes, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen, oxidation, planting, polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal RNA, sequence homology, sewage, sewage treatment, subsurface flow, vegetation
Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) may provide an effective nitrogen removal pathway for constructed wetlands with low C/N influent. In a study of domestic sewage treatment, anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was identified in the pilot-scale constructed wetland of a bio-ecological process which was composed of a bio-contact oxidation reactor and a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW). To investigate the ANAMMOX establishment in the bio-ecological process, two new CWs (planted and unplanted) were developed to be a control for the pre-existing CW. Under operational conditions of DO 2–3mg/l, HRT 3.5h for the bio-contact oxidation reactor, HRT 3days for CWs, and domestic sewage as influent, the process achieved more than 90% TN removal rate after the ANAMMOX was established. The ANAMMOX bacteria on the media of the constructed wetlands were analyzed by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with ANAMMOX specific primer set AMX818F-AMX1066R. The result of the genetic sequencing showed that the PCR product was related to Candidatus B. anammoxidans (AF375994.1) with 98% sequence similarity. Copy numbers of 16S rRNA gene of ANAMMOX bacteria in the pre-existing CW, the new planted CW and new unplanted CW were 3.47×10⁵, 3.02×10⁵ and 1.30×10⁵, respectively. These results demonstrated that the ANAMMOX process was successfully established and operated consistently in the constructed wetlands with a bio-contact oxidation reactor as a pretreatment, and that vegetation positively affected the growth and enrichment of ANAMMOX bacteria.