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Interpretation of analysis of variance models using principal component analysis to assess the effect of a maternal anticancer treatment on the mineralization of rat bones

Stanimirova, I., Michalik, K., Drzazga, Z., Trzeciak, H., Wentzell, P.D., Walczak, B.
Analytica chimica acta 2011 v.689 no.1 pp. 1-7
X-radiation, analysis of variance, anticarcinogenic activity, bones, calcium, cyclophosphamide, drug therapy, experimental design, fluorescence, magnesium, mineral content, mineralization, minerals, models, neonates, potassium, pregnancy, principal component analysis, rats, sodium, spectral analysis, zinc
The goal of the present study is to assess the effects of anticancer treatment with cyclophosphamide and cytarabine during pregnancy on the mineralization of mandible bones in 7-, 14- and 28-day-old rats. Each bone sample was described by its X-ray fluorescence spectrum characterizing the mineral composition. The data collected are multivariate in nature and their structure is difficult to visualize and interpret directly. Therefore, methods like analysis of variance–principal component analysis (ANOVA–PCA) and ANOVA–simultaneous component analysis (ASCA), which are suitable for the analysis of highly correlated spectral data and are able to incorporate information about the underlined experimental design, are greatly valued. In this study, the ASCA methodology adapted for unbalanced data was used to investigate the impact of the anticancer drug treatment during pregnancy on the mineralization of the mandible bones of newborn rats and to examine any changes in the mineralization of the bones over time. The results showed that treatment with cyclophosphamide and cytarabine during pregnancy induces a decrease in the K and Zn levels in the mandible bones of newborns. This suppresses the development of mandible bones in rats in the early stages (up to 14 days) of formation. An interesting observation was that the levels of essential minerals like K, Mg, Na and Ca vary considerably in the different regions of the mandible bones.