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Reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and cadmium in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and modulation of bisphenol A effects by different test temperature
- Sieratowicz, Agnes, Stange, Daniela, Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike, Oehlmann, Jörg
- Environmental pollution 2011 v.159 no.10 pp. 2766-2774
- Potamopyrgus antipodarum, bisphenol A, breeding stock, cadmium, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, reproductive toxicology, seasonal variation, temperature, toxicity testing
- An OECD initiative for the development of mollusc-based toxicity tests for endocrine disrupters and other chemicals has recommended three test species with respective test designs for further standardisation. Preparing a subsequent pre-validation study we performed a reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, determining the concentration range of the selected test substances, bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd). At 16 °C, the recommended test temperature, the number of embryos in the brood pouch was increased by BPA and decreased by Cd (NOEC: 20 μg BPA/L and 1 μg Cd/L). Coinstantaneous BPA tests at 7 °C and 25 °C demonstrated a temperature dependency of the response, resulting in lower NOECs (5 μg/L respectively). As expected, reproduction in control groups significantly varied depending on temperature. Additional observations of the brood stock showed seasonal fluctuations in reproduction under constant laboratory conditions. The recommended temperature range and test conditions have to be further investigated.