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Ecotoxicological effect characterisation of widely used organic UV filters

Kaiser, D., Sieratowicz, A., Zielke, H., Oetken, M., Hollert, H., Oehlmann, J.
Environmental pollution 2012 v.163 pp. 84-90
Arthrobacter globiformis, Chironomus riparius, Danio rerio, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, aquatic organisms, bacteria, filters, personal care products, reproduction, sediments, snails, sublethal effects
Chemical UV filters are used in sun protection and personal care products in order to protect consumers from skin cancer induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of three common UV filters butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (B-MDM) ethylhexyl-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OCR) on aquatic organism, focussing particularly on infaunal and epibentic invertebrates (Chironomus riparius, Lumbriculus variegatus, Melanoides tuberculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Due to their life habits, these organism are especially affected by lipophilic substances. Additionally, two direct sediment contact assays utilising zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos and bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) were conducted. EHMC caused a toxic effect on reproduction in both snails with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of 0.4 mg/kg (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) and 10 mg/kg (Melanoides tuberculata). At high concentrations sublethal effects could be observed for D. rerio after exposure to EHMC (NOEC 100 mg/kg). B-MDM and OCR showed no effects on any of the tested organism.