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Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the surface soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China: Distribution, sources, and air-soil exchange
- Wang, Yan, Cheng, Zhineng, Li, Jun, Luo, Chunling, Xu, Yue, Li, Qilu, Liu, Xiang, Zhang, Gan
- Environmental pollution 2012 v.170 pp. 1-7
- air, bioaccumulation, combustion, emissions, environmental fate, naphthalenes, river deltas, rivers, soil, summer, toxicity, volatilization, winter, China
- Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are now under review by the Stockholm Convention as a candidate for POPs for their persistence, toxicity, bioaccumulation, and long-range atmospheric transport. Data regarding PCN levels and their environmental fate are sparse in China. The PCN concentration and distribution in soils of the Pearl River Delta were reported, and the average total concentration was 59.9 ± 86.7 pg/g. Tri-CNs was the dominant homologue group, and CN 24 was the most abundant congener. A gradient of PCN levels between more and less developed areas was observed. Based on fugacity fraction results, CN 51 is proposed as a possible source marker for specific combustion emissions. Air-soil exchange of PCNs was estimated by calculating the soil and air fugacity. Fugacity fraction values indicated that tri- to penta-CNs were closer to equilibrium in winter and toward net volatilization in summer, while hexa-CNs experienced net air-to-soil transfer in both seasons.