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Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils: Chemical availability as the central concept

Rodrigues, S.M., Cruz, N., Coelho, C., Henriques, B., Carvalho, L., Duarte, A.C., Pereira, E., Römkens, Paul F.A.M.
Environmental pollution 2013 v.183 pp. 234-242
bioavailability, cadmium, calcium chloride, copper, equations, lead, mining, models, nitric acid, pH, risk assessment, soil properties, urban soils, zinc
To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO3 (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl2 (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioaccessible pool). Oral bioaccessibility in urban soils was higher than in samples from rural, industrial and mining areas which is most likely related to sources of metals and parent materials of corresponding soils. The availability and reactivity were described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations when considering differences in soil properties. The resulting empirical models are able to predict availability and reactivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of risk assessment. Furthermore, a close 1:1 relationship exists between results from the 0.43 M HNO3 method and the SBET method which substantially facilitates risk assessment procedures and reduces analytical costs.