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An extract of Commiphora erythraea: a repellent and toxicant against ticks

Carroll, J.F., Maradufu, A., Warthen, J.D. Jr.
Entomologia experimentalis et applicata 1989 v.53 no.2 pp. 111-116
Amblyomma americanum, Commiphora, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, adults, hexane, larvae, larvicides, permethrin, ticks
A hexane extract of the gum of an African plant, Commiphora erythraea Engler (Burseraceae), has larvicidal and repellent activity against the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) and the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say). Adult deer ticks, Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin, were also repelled by the extract. Concentrations of 0.02 mg/cm² of the extract impregnated onto filter paper killed 96.15 (± 3.56)% of A. americanum larvae exposed to it for 24 h. A concentration of 0.16 mg/cm² was needed to kill 80.3% of D. variabilis larvae. The extract was less effective as a larvicide against A. americanum and D. variabilis than permethrin. Less than 15.5% of A. americanum larvae and adults and D. variabilis and I. dammini adults entered and remained for 2 or 3 min on areas of cloth strips treated with the extract at the rate of 0.2 mg/cm². However, 73.3 to 83.3% of the ticks tested entered and remained in areas treated with hexane. Permethrin was about 1 or 2 orders of magnitude more effective against A. americanum larvae as a repellent than the extract.