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Hormonal effects of tetrabromobisphenol A using a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays
- Huang, Guo-Yong, Ying, Guang-Guo, Liang, Yan-Qiu, Zhao, Jian-Liang, Yang, Bin, Liu, Shan, Liu, You-Sheng
- Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C 2013 v.157 pp. 344-351
- Gambusia affinis, adults, androgen receptors, bioassays, estrogen receptors, gene expression, gene expression regulation, humans, juveniles, liver, males, messenger RNA, testes, toxicity, vitellogenin, yeasts
- The aim of this study was to investigate the hormonal effects of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in vitro on recombinant yeasts and in vivo on mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). The in vitro bioassays for (anti-)androgenic activities showed that TBBPA had a weak androgenic activity in vitro with recombinant yeast systems carrying human androgen receptor (hAR). In the in vivo bioassays, the gene expression patterns of vitellogenin (Vtg), estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ), and androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ) in adult males and juveniles after exposure to TBBPA for 60days were evaluated. Significant up-regulation of Vtg, ERα, and ERβ mRNAs was observed in the liver after exposure to 500nM of TBBPA. In the testis, the lowest concentration of TBBPA (50nM) markedly induced Vtg, ERβ, and ARβ mRNA expression, but the same concentration significantly inhibited ARα mRNA expression. In addition, in juveniles, 100nM of TBBPA significantly up-regulated the expression of Vtg, ERβ, and ARα mRNAs. However, TBPPA did not cause histological alterations in the liver and testis of adult male mosquitofish. The results from this present study suggest that TBBPA could display low but multiple hormonal activities despite its low toxicity to mosquitofish.