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Evaluation of remediation process with soapberry derived saponin for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils in Hai-Pu, Taiwan

Maity, Jyoti Prakash, Huang, Yuh Ming, Fan, Cheng-Wei, Chen, Chien-Cheng, Li, Chun-Yi, Hsu, Chun-Mei, Chang, Young-Fo, Wu, Ching-I, Chen, Chen-Yen, Jean, Jiin-Shuh
Journal of Environmental Sciences 2013 v.25 pp. 1180-1185
Sapindus saponaria, biodegradability, chromium, heavy metals, manganese, nickel, pH, polluted soils, remediation, saponins, soil washing, surfactants, Taiwan
The use of a biodegradable natural plant-based surfactant extracted from soapberry is proposed for the remediation of Ni, Cr and Mn from industrial soil site in Hai-Pu, Taiwan. Batch experiments were performed under variation of fundamental factors (saponin concentration, pH, and incubation time) for metal remediation. Removal of Ni and Mn were increased with increasing saponin concentration (0.015–0.150 g/L), whereas the removal of Cr was increased upto 0.075 g/L saponin. The Ni, Cr and Mn were removed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) at near to the neutral and slightly acidic (pH 5 to 8) conditions. Removal efficiency of Ni (99%) from the soil was found to be greater than that of Cr (73%) or Mn (25%) in the presence of saponin at a concentration of 0.150 g/L at pH 5. The removal percentage increased with incubation time where the removal of Ni was faster than that of Cr and Mn. The result indicates the feasibility of eco-friendly removal of heavy metal (Ni, Cr and Mn) from industrial soil by soil washing process in presence of plant derived saponin.