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Basic studies and applications on bioremediation of DDT: A review

Purnomo, Adi Setyo, Mori, Toshio, Kamei, Ichiro, Kondo, Ryuichiro
International biodeterioration & biodegradation 2011 v.65 no.7 pp. 921-930
DDT (pesticide), adverse effects, bacteria, bioremediation, brown-rot fungi, cattle manure, composts, ethane, insecticides, malaria, mixed culture, mushrooms, pest control, polluted soils, toxicity, white-rot fungi
The persistent insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane) has been widely used for pest control in the management of mosquito-borne malaria and is still used for that purpose in some tropical countries. Considering the potential for negative effects due to DDT contamination, it is necessary to determine effective methods of remediation. Several methods have been used to degrade or transform DDT into less toxic compounds. Bacteria and white-rot fungi (WRF) have been shown to enhance the degradation process in soil using both pure and mixed cultures. Recently, a biological approach has been used as an environmentally-friendly treatment, using new biological sources to degrade DDT, e.g. brown-rot fungi (BRF), cattle manure compost (CMC) and spent mushroom waste (SMW). In this review, the abilities of BRF, CMC and SMW to degrade DDT are discussed, including the mechanisms and degradation pathways. Furthermore, application of these sources to contaminated soil is also described. The review discusses which is the best source for bioremediation of DDT.