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Inactivation and surface interactions of MS-2 bacteriophage in a TiO₂ photoelectrocatalytic reactor

Cho, Min, Cates, Ezra L., Kim, Jae-Hong
Water research 2011 v.45 no.5 pp. 2104-2110
Cryptosporidium parvum, Staphylococcus aureus, oocysts, hydroxyl radicals, spores, capsid, titanium dioxide, electrodes, bacteriophages, free radical scavengers, indium, surface interactions, tin, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, disinfection, electrostatic interactions, irradiation, Escherichia coli
Inactivation of MS-2 bacteriophage in a TiO₂ photoelectrocatalytic system was evaluated, wherein TiO₂ particles were coated onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and an electrical potential was applied under black light blue (BLB) irradiation. MS-2 phage inactivation was greatly enhanced by anodic potential, whereas cathodic potential completely inhibited inactivation. Experiments performed with radical scavengers showed that inactivation was primarily caused by hydroxyl radicals, both in the bulk phase and on the TiO₂ surface. Application of positive potential to the electrode was found to result in two distinct beneficial effects: (i) electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged viral capsid and catalyst surface, causing improved usage of surface-bound hydroxyl radical, in comparison to conventional TiO₂ photocatalytic disinfection; and (ii) higher reactive oxygen species production. Results also suggest that inactivation of various microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis spores and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst was enhanced via positive potential induction to TiO₂.