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Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of surface water and groundwater in Songnen plain, Northeast China

Zhang, Bing, Song, Xianfang, Zhang, Yinghua, Han, Dongmei, Tang, Changyuan, Yu, Yilei, Ma, Ying
Water research 2012 v.46 no.8 pp. 2737-2748
USDA, cluster analysis, crop production, drinking, drinking water, grain quality, groundwater, human health, ions, iron, irrigation water, manganese, multivariate analysis, principal component analysis, salinity, semiarid zones, sodium, soil, surface water, water quality, China
Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Songnen plain is one of the grain bases in China, as well as one of the three major distribution regions of soda saline-alkali soil in the world. To assess the water quality, surface water and groundwater were sampled and analyzed by fuzzy membership analysis and multivariate statistics. The surface water were gather into class I, IV and V, while groundwater were grouped as class I, II, III and V by fuzzy membership analysis. The water samples were grouped into four categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagrams of USDA. Most water samples distributed in category C1-S1, C2-S2 and C3-S3. Three groups were generated from hierarchical cluster analysis. Four principal components were extracted from principal component analysis. The indicators to water quality assessment were Na, HCO₃, NO₃, Fe, Mn and EC from principal component analysis. We conclude that surface water and shallow groundwater are suitable for irrigation, the reservoir and deep groundwater in upstream are the resources for drinking. The water for drinking should remove of the naturally occurring ions of Fe and Mn. The control of sodium and salinity hazard is required for irrigation. The integrated management of surface water and groundwater for drinking and irrigation is to solve the water issues.