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Behavioral effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)
- Chen, Te-Hao, Lin, Chun-Yao, Tseng, Mei-Chen
- Marine pollution bulletin 2011 v.63 no.5-12 pp. 303-308
- Danio rerio, abnormal development, acetylcysteine, endpoints, fish, glutathione, larvae, nanoparticles, oxidative stress, swimming, titanium dioxide, toxicity, water pollution
- In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO₂ NPs at 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10mg/L or control) from fertilization to free swimming stage. Hatchability, survival, and malformation rate were not affected by TiO₂ NPs at these exposure levels. However, larval swimming parameters, including average and maximum velocity and activity level were significantly affected by TiO₂ NPs. Co-exposure to either the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or the glutathione synthesis inhibitor, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), did not significantly alter the behavioral effects resulting from TiO₂ NPs, suggesting that other factor(s) besides oxidative stress may contribute to the behavioral toxicity of TiO₂ NPs. Our study also demonstrated that the behavioral endpoints were more sensitive than the others (e.g., hatchability and survival) to detect toxicity of TiO₂ NPs on developing fish.