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Effects of BMP-2 and vitamin D₃ on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells

Song, Insun, Kim, Byung-Soo, Kim, Chang-Sung, Im, Gun-Il
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2011 v.408 no.1 pp. 126-131
alizarin, alkaline phosphatase, bone formation, mineralization, stem cells, synergism, tissue engineering
We studied the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and vitamin D₃ on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells (ASCs). ASCs were treated with 10, 50, and 100ng/ml of BMP-2, and 10⁻⁸, 10⁻⁷, 10⁻⁶M vitamin D₃. Then, to investigate the effects of combined treatment, ASCs were treated with BMP-2 and vitamin D₃ dose-dependently and time-dependently. The osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities/staining and the mineralization was evaluated by Alizarin red S staining. ALP activity and mineralization dose-dependently increased in early stages (ALP on 7th day and mineralization on the 14th day) while all three doses of BMP-2 or vitamin D₃ showed comparable effects in late stages (ALP on the 14th day and mineralization on the 21st day) in ASCs. BMP-2 and vitamin D₃ had synergistic effect on the osteogenic differentiation of ASCs. While all three doses of BMP-2 acted similarly in reinforcing the effect of vitamin D₃, vitamin D₃ dose-dependently augmented the osteogenic effect of BMP-2. When BMP-2 was constantly treated, vitamin D₃ effect did not differ depending on the period of vitamin D₃ treatment. However, when vitamin D₃ was constantly treated, the BMP was more effective when treated for the last 7days than when treated for the first 7days. In conclusion, BMP-2 and vitamin D₃ promote osteogenic differentiation of ASCs, and can work synergistically. These results can be used to induce effective and economical osteogenic induction of ASCs for bone tissue engineering.