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Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

Eto, Masumi, Kirkbride, Jason A., Chugh, Rishika, Karikari, Nana Kofi, Kim, Jee In
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2013 v.434 pp. 137-142
cell culture, cell proliferation, dephosphorylation, fluorescent antibody technique, histones, humans, models, myocytes, myosin light chains, pancreatic neoplasms, phosphoprotein phosphatase, phosphorylation, physiological transport, protein subunits, rats, signal transduction, smooth muscle
CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.