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A synthetic bivalent ligand of CXCR4 inhibits HIV infection

Xu, Yan, Duggineni, Srinivas, Espitia, Stephen, Richman, Douglas D., An, Jing, Huang, Ziwei
Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2013 v.435 pp. 646-650
inhibitory concentration 50, human diseases, cell movement, CXCR4 receptor, Human immunodeficiency virus 1, antagonists, HIV infections, antiretroviral properties, calcium, inflammation, physiology, monoclonal antibodies, amino acids, cell membranes, autoimmune diseases
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell membrane protein receptors that transduce signals across the cell membrane and are important targets for therapeutic interventions. As members of the GPCR superfamily, chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 play critical roles in normal physiology as well as the pathology of many human diseases including cancer, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here we report the discovery and study of a novel peptide ligand of CXCR4 using d-amino acids and bivalent ligand approach. This peptide, DV1-K-(DV3), shows very high affinity for CXCR4 with an IC50 of 4nM in anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 12G5 competitive assay, which is more potent than full length natural ligand SDF-1α, even though the peptide is less than half of the number of residues of SDF-1α. This peptide can block the calcium influx stimulated by SDF-1α and inhibit cancer cell migration in vitro via CXCR4, thus functioning as a CXCR4 antagonist. Furthermore, DV1-K-(DV3) peptide displayed anti-HIV activity by inhibiting HIV-1 infection mediated by CXCR4. With its high receptor affinity and stability from d-amino acids, this peptide may be a new probe of CXCR4 functions in physiology and pathology and promising lead for therapeutic development.