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Pyridoxal-5′-phosphate as the catalyst for radical isomerization in reactions of PLP-dependent aminomutases

Perry A. Frey, George H. Reed
Biochimica et biophysica acta 2011 v.1814 no.11 pp. 1548-1557
active sites, catalysts, crystal structure, enzymes, enzymology, free radicals, isomerization, lysine, ornithine, pyridoxal, spectroscopy
PLP catalyzes the 1,2 shifts of amino groups in free radical-intermediates at the active sites of amino acid aminomutases. Free radical forms of the substrates are created upon H atom abstractions carried out by the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical. In most of these enzymes, the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical is generated by an iron–sulfur cluster-mediated reductive cleavage of S-adenosyl-(S)-methionine. However, in lysine 5,6-aminomutase and ornithine 4,5-aminomutase, the radical is generated by homolytic cleavage of the cobalt–carbon bond of adenosylcobalamin. The imine linkages in the initial radical forms of the external aldimines undergo radical addition to form azacyclopropylcarbinyl radicals as central intermediates in the catalytic cycles. In the case of lysine 2,3-aminomutase, the multistep catalytic mechanism is corroborated by direct spectroscopic observation and characterization of a product radical trapped during steady-state turnover. Analogues of the substrate-related radical having substituents adjacent to the radical center to stabilize the unpaired electron are also observed and characterized spectroscopically. A functional allylic analogue of the 5′-deoxyadenosyl radical is observed spectroscopically. A high-resolution crystal structure fully supports the mechanistic proposals. Evidence for a similar free radical mediated amino group transfer in the adenosylcobalamin-dependent lysine 5,6-aminomutase is provided by spectroscopic detection and characterization of radicals generated from the 4-thia analogues of the lysine substrates. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pyridoxal Phospate Enzymology.