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Fluorescent PLLA-nanodiamond composites for bone tissue engineering

Zhang, Qingwei, Mochalin, Vadym N., Neitzel, Ioannis, Knoke, Isabel Y., Han, Jingjia, Klug, Christopher A., Zhou, Jack G., Lelkes, Peter I., Gogotsi, Yury
Biomaterials 2011 v.32 no.1 pp. 87-94
biocompatibility, biodegradability, bones, cell growth, cell proliferation, drugs, fluorescence, hardness, humans, in vivo studies, mechanical properties, medicine, mice, modulus of elasticity, nanocomposites, nanodiamonds, nanoparticles, osteoblasts, polymers, prostheses, surgical equipment, tissue engineering, tissue repair
Superior mechanical properties, rich surface chemistry, and good biocompatibility of diamond nanoparticles make them attractive in biomaterial applications. A multifunctional fluorescent composite bone scaffold material has been produced utilizing a biodegradable polymer, poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), and octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond (ND-ODA). The uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the polymer led to significant increase in hardness and Young’s modulus of the composites. Addition of 10%wt of ND-ODA resulted in more than 200% increase in Young’s modulus and 800% increase in hardness, bringing the nanocomposite properties close to that of the human cortical bone. Testing of ND-ODA/PLLA as a matrix supporting murine osteoblast (7F2) cell growth for up to 1 week showed that the addition of ND-ODA had no negative effects on cell proliferation. ND-ODA serves as a multifunctional additive providing improved mechanical properties, bright fluorescence, and options for drug loading and delivery via surface modification. Thus ND-ODA/PLLA composites open up numerous avenues for their use as components of bone scaffolds and smart surgical tools such as fixation devices in musculoskeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Intense fluorescence of ND-ODA/PLLA scaffolds can be used to monitor bone re-growth replacing the implant in vivo.