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Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of biomimetic Bioglass-Collagen-Phosphatidylserine composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

Xu, Caixia, Su, Peiqiang, Chen, Xiaofeng, Meng, Yongchun, Yu, Weihua, Xiang, Andy Peng, Wang, Yingjun
Biomaterials 2011 v.32 no.4 pp. 1051-1058
alizarin, alkaline phosphatase, biocompatibility, biomimetics, bone formation, femur, freeze drying, gene expression, orthopedics, porosity, rats, scanning electron microscopy, stem cells, surgery, tissue engineering
A novel biomimetic composite scaffold Bioglass-Collagen-Phosphatidylserine (BG-COL-PS) was fabricated with a freeze-drying technique. The macrostructure and morphology as well as mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the BG-COL-PS scaffolds exhibited interconnected porous structures with pore sizes of several microns up to about 300 μm. The scaffolds have a porosity of 75.40% and the corresponding compressive strength of 1.5469 Mpa. Rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were seeded on BG-COL-PS or BG-COL scaffolds and cultured for 21 days in vitro. Based on the results of SEM, dsDNA content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteogenic gene expression analysis and alizarin red staining, the responses of MSCs to the scaffold exhibited a higher degree of attachment, growth as well as osteogenic differentiation than those on BG-COL scaffolds in vitro. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds, both pure BG-COL-PS scaffolds and MSC/scaffold constructs were implanted in rat femurs defects for 6 weeks and studied histologically and radiographically. The in vivo results showed that BG-COL-PS composite scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility and extensive osteoconductivity with host bone. Moreover, the BG-COL-PS/MSC constructs dramatically enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation than pure BG-COL-PS scaffolds or BG-COL/MSC constructs. All these results demonstrate the usefulness of PS composited BG-COL-PS scaffolds for inducing enhanced bone formation. The BG-COL-PS scaffolds fulfill the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold and have the potential to be applied in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery.