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An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood

Zhang, Guo-Jun, Luo, Zhan Hong Henry, Huang, Min Joon, Ang, Jun’An Jason, Kang, Tae Goo, Ji, Hongmiao
Biosensors & bioelectronics 2011 v.28 no.1 pp. 459-463
adults, antibodies, biomarkers, biosensors, blood, chest, creatine kinase, death, detection limit, electrocardiography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, filtration, hospitals, myocardial infarction, nanowires, pain, patients, silicon, troponin T
Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death among adults worldwide. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a first test when a patient suffering from chest pain sees a doctor, however, it is lack of the required sensitivity. Standard assays to detect cardiac biomarkers, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are sensitive, but suffer from important sample and reagent consumption in large-scale studies. Moreover they are performed in central laboratories of clinics and hospitals and take a long time, which is highly incompatible with the quick decisions needed to save a heart attack patient. Herein, we describe an integrated chip allowing rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous analysis of three cardiac biomarkers in fingerprick blood. The integrated chip is composed of a filtration chip for plasma separation from blood and a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array sensor chip for protein detection. These two chips are fabricated separately and bonded to form a single unit after alignment. The integrated chip is capable of reducing the dead volume of the sample by eliminating the tubing between the two chips. After the plasma is filtrated by the filtration chip, the SiNW sensor, spotted with three different antibodies, enabled us to detect three cardiac biomarkers, troponin T (cTnT), creatine kinase MM (CK-MM) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), simultaneously. The integrated chip is able to attain a low detection limit of 1pg/ml for the three cardiac biomarkers from 2μl blood in 45min.