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India’s energy needs and low carbon options

Parikh, Jyoti, Parikh, Kirit
Energy 2011 v.36 no.6 pp. 3650-3658
carbon, carbon dioxide, coal, economic development, energy efficiency, governmental programs and projects, greenhouse gas emissions, hydrogen, imports, renewable energy sources, India
India’s aspiration for economic growth has consequences for energy growth and CO₂ emissions. This paper examines India’s need for energy with 20 year perspectives. From an earlier paper by K. Parikh et al. (2009), demand scenario are examined from the supply perspectives ranging from coal, hydrocarbon, nuclear, hydrogen, hydro and other renewable etc. None of these are substantial and India will have to rely on imports. The need for energy has to be reduced by a drive for energy efficiency and renewable energy. Government programmes for the above are also commented upon. Though India’s CO₂ emissions are unlikely to grow very much due to energy scarcity and energy mix the article examines the potential to reduce CO₂ emissions and the associated costs involved in various options. It finds that 30% reduction in CO₂ emissions by 2030 is feasible but would involve additional costs. The most promising option is to reduce energy demand by various measures to increase energy use efficiency in production and consumption.