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Optimal real time pricing in an agent-based retail market using a comprehensive demand response model
- Yousefi, Shaghayegh, Moghaddam, Mohsen Parsa, Majd, Vahid Johari
- Energy 2011 v.36 no.9 pp. 5716-5727
- consumers (people), demand elasticities, demand functions, energy, markets, models, prices, retail marketing, New England region
- In this paper, a weighted combination of different demand vs. price functions referred to as Composite Demand Function (CDF) is introduced in order to represent the demand model of consuming sectors which comprise different clusters of customers with divergent load profiles and energy use habitudes. Derived from the mathematical representations of demand, dynamic price elasticities are proposed to demonstrate the customers’ demand sensitivity with respect to the hourly price. Based on the proposed CDF and dynamic elasticities, a comprehensive demand response (CDR) model is developed in this paper for the purpose of representing customer response to time-based and incentive-based demand response (DR) programs. The above model helps a Retail Energy Provider (REP) agent in an agent-based retail environment to offer day-ahead real time prices to its customers. The most beneficial real time prices are determined through an economically optimized manner represented by REP agent’s learning capability based on the principles of Q-learning method incorporating different aspects of the problem such as price caps and customer response to real time pricing as a time-based demand response program represented by the CDR model. Numerical studies are conducted based on New England day-ahead market’s data to investigate the performance of the proposed model.