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Characterization of products from hydrothermal treatments of cellulose
- Gao, Ying, Wang, Xian-Hua, Yang, Hai-Ping, Chen, Han-Ping
- Energy 2012 v.42 no.1 pp. 457-465
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-radiation, aldehydes, autoclaves, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carboxylic acids, cellulose, furans, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, hot water treatment, hydrogen, ketones, methane, oils, phenols, scanning electron microscopy, sugars, temperature, thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy
- The main aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of products from hydrothermal treatments of cellulose in an autoclave at various temperatures (200 °C–400 °C) and residence times (5 min–2 h). The gas products mainly consisted of CO₂, CO, CH₄, and H₂ at 250 °C–400 °C for 30 min. Heavy oil mainly contained furans, phenols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, and high molecular compounds at all hydrothermal temperatures. Aldehydes, phenols, ketones, acid groups and sugars were determined in the aqueous phase by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The solid residues were analyzed by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron microscopy, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis techniques. The results showed that the residues had core–shell structure and better physicochemical characterization at lower temperature (250 °C) and longer residence time (2 h).