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Modeling the CO₂ emissions from battery electric vehicles given the power generation mixes of different countries
- Doucette, Reed T., McCulloch, Malcolm D.
- Energy policy 2011 v.39 no.2 pp. 803-811
- automobiles, batteries, carbon dioxide, combustion, emissions, energy, energy use and consumption, models, power generation, roads, China, India
- With the number of vehicles on the world’s roads expected to grow to 2.9 billion by 2050, steps must be taken to reduce the CO₂ emissions from transport. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can help achieve this. This study aimed to determine the CO₂ emissions stemming from BEV operation in different countries and to compare those CO₂ emissions to the emissions from similar vehicles based on internal combustion engines (ICEs). This study selected four ICE-based vehicles, and modeled BEVs based on the specifications of each of these vehicles. The modeled BEVs were run through a simulation to determine their energy consumption. Their energy consumption was combined with data on the CO₂ intensity of the power generation mix in different countries to reveal the emissions resulting from BEV operation. The CO₂ emissions from the BEVs were compared to the CO₂ emissions for their ICE-based counterparts. Amongst the results, it was shown that for China and India, and other countries with a similarly high CO₂ intensity, unless power generation becomes dramatically less CO₂ intensive, BEVs will not be able to deliver a meaningful decrease in CO₂ emissions and an increase in the penetration of BEVs could actually lead to higher CO₂ emissions.