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Fenamiphos losses under simulated rainfall: plot size effects

Wauchope, R.D., Truman, C.C., Johnson, A.W., Sumner, H.R., Hook, J.E., Dowler, C.C., Chandler, L.D., Gascho, G.J., Davis, J.G.
Transactions of the ASAE 2004 v.47 no.3 pp. 669
fenamiphos, pesticide residues, metabolites, losses from soil, agricultural runoff, rain, agricultural soils, sandy soils, field experimentation, experimental design, soil pollution, water pollution, loamy sand soils, Georgia
The purpose of this study was to compare two commonly used runoff experimental methods, which have different scales, on measurements of runoff and associated fenamiphos and metabolite losses over a 2-year period. Methods used were 15 m wide by 43 m long (645 m2) mesoplots and 1.8 m wide by 3 m long (5.4 m2) microplots, under simulated rainfall (25 mm h-1 for 2 h) at 1, 14, and 28 d after fenamiphos application. Mesoplots and microplots were established parallel to a 3% slope on a Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult). All plots were planted to corn (Zea mays L.). Target application rate for fenamiphos was 6.7 kg ha-1. Runoff totals and maximum rates for meso- and microplots were similar, with approximately 25% of the rainfall running off mesoplots and approximately 28% running off microplots. Runoff totals and maximum rates from meso- and microplots were each positively correlated (R2 = 0.89). In both years, fenamiphos lost in runoff decreased with each rainfall event (1, 14, and 28 d after application). The majority of fenamiphos lost in runoff was in the fenamiphos sulfoxide form. Fenamiphos sulfoxide lost over both years from mesoplots ranged from 51% to 93% of the total fenamiphos lost, and loss from microplots ranged from 47% to 100% of the total fenamiphos lost. Runoff from meso- and microplots 1 d after fenamiphos application, a "reasonable worst-case" event, had the greatest fenamiphos losses among events. Total losses of fenamiphos for this event averaged 1.2% (CV = 26%) of applied amount for mesoplots and 1.3% (CV = 47%) of applied amount for microplots. Maximum (seasonal) fenamiphos losses for meso- and microplots were 1.4% of applied for mesoplots and 2.6% of applied for microplots. A positive correlation was obtained between microplots and mesoplots for total losses of fenamiphos + metabolites (R2 = 0.88), fenamiphos parent (R2 = 0.89), and fenamiphos sulfoxide (R2 = 0.81). Relatively poor agreement was found for relatively small losses of fenamiphos sulfone between plot types (R2 = 0.34). Microplots and mesoplots yielded statistically similar results in terms of runoff and fenamiphos losses; thus, microplot results can be extrapolated up to larger mesoplot areas under these conditions. This has implications for field-scale management and watershed assessment in the Coastal Plain region of the southeast U.S. in that microplot and rainfall simulation results could be useful as statistically valid input datasets to estimate runoff and associated fenamiphos losses from larger areas.