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An overview of energy consumption of the globalized world economy

Chen, Z.M., Chen, G.Q.
Energy policy 2011 v.39 no.10 pp. 5920-5928
embodied energy, energy use and consumption, household consumption, international trade, oils, China, Uganda, United States
For the globalized world economy with intensive international trade, an overview of energy consumption is presented by an embodied energy analysis to track both direct and indirect energy uses based on a systems input–output simulation. In 2004, the total amounts of energy embodied in household consumption, government consumption, and investment are 7749, 874, and 2009Mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent), respectively. The United States is shown as the world’s biggest embodied energy importer (683Mtoe) and embodied energy surplus receiver (290Mtoe), in contrast to China as the biggest exporter (662Mtoe) and deficit receiver (274Mtoe). Energy embodied in consumption per capita varies from 0.05 (Uganda) to 19.54toe (Rest of North America). Based on a forecast for 2005–2035, China is to replace the United States as the world’s leading embodied energy consumer in 2027, when its per capita energy consumption will be one quarter of that of the United States.