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Toxicological evaluation of smokeless tobacco: 90-Day rodent feeding studies

Theophilus, Eugenia H., Hayes, Johnnie R., Potts, Ryan J., Ayres, Paul H., Williams, Chandra D., Garner, Charles D.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology 2012 v.64 no.1-2 pp. 15-24
adverse effects, cotinine, feed intake, histopathology, mice, nicotine, rats, smokeless tobacco, tissue weight, toxicology
This manuscript presents data from 90-day toxicology studies designed to characterize the subchronic effects of a smokeless tobacco blend and an aqueous extract of that blend when administered to rodents in NTP-2000 feed. Positive control (nicotine tartrate) and treatment groups were matched for a range of nicotine levels. The doses evaluated were 0.3, 3, and 6mgnicotine/kg body weight/day in Wistar Hannover rats and 6, 60, and 120mgnicotine/kg/day in CD-1 mice. Variables evaluated included plasma nicotine and cotinine, body weights, feed consumption, clinical observations, clinical and anatomic pathology (including organ weights), and histopathology. Plasma nicotine and cotinine levels were dose-responsive. Key effects such as body weight reductions and organ weight changes occurred in rats and mice predominantly at the highest doses of test articles and positive control in the absence of treatment-related gross or histopathological changes. Organ weight changes were attributed mainly to the lower body weights of treated vs. control groups. The blend- and extract-induced effects generally paralleled each other and the nicotine-induced effects. Based on these studies, the doses evaluated spanned the no observable adverse effect level, the lowest observable adverse effect level and the maximum tolerated dose.