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Oxidative Stress and Paraoxonase Activity in Experimental Selenosis: Effects of Betaine Administration

Harisa, Gamaleldin I.
Biological trace element research 2013 v.152 no.2 pp. 258-266
bilirubin, selenium, lipids, betaine, oxidative stress, glutathione, malondialdehyde, transaminases, oxidation, albumins, NADP-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sodium selenite, body weight, selenosis, superoxide dismutase, rats, toxicity, antioxidant activity, thiols, glutathione-disulfide reductase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase
The present study was undertaken on male rats to elucidate the selenosis induced by sodium selenite and the role played by betaine in alleviating selenium toxicity. Rats were treated with sodium selenite (6 mg/kg body weight/day) with or without betaine (240 mg/kg body weight/day). Selenotoxicosis was evident from the elevated plasma levels of total bilirubin, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase activities. Moreover, the total protein levels decreased, and this decrease associated with a decreased albumin level, whereas the globulin level increased in selenium-intoxicated rats. The development of selenosis corresponded well with the induction of oxidative stress evident from decrease of total thiol level and glutathione content. Furthermore, activities of glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and paraoxonase-1 were decreased in selenium-treated rats. In contrast, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by excess selenium administration compared with control animals. As well, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl were elevated in rats treated with selenium. Supplementation of betaine simultaneously with selenium caused less marked alteration in the investigated parameters. Betaine attenuated the selenotoxicosis by restoring thiol levels that preserve enzymatic antioxidants activity and attenuate the oxidation of lipids and proteins.