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Steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cefepime administered by prolonged infusion in hospitalised patients

Author:
Cheatham, S. Christian, Shea, Katherine M., Healy, Daniel P., Humphrey, Melissa L., Fleming, Megan R., Wack, Matthew F., Smith, David W., Sowinski, Kevin M., Kays, Michael B.
Source:
International journal of antimicrobial agents 2011 v.37 no.1 pp. 46-50
ISSN:
0924-8579
Subject:
Monte Carlo method, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, anti-infective agents, blood serum, drug therapy, half life, minimum inhibitory concentration, pathogens, patients, pharmacokinetics, probability, United States
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cefepime administered by prolonged infusion in hospitalised patients requiring antimicrobial therapy. Nine patients received 1g every 8h (q8h), infused over 4h, and steady-state pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental and compartmental methods. Using these pharmacokinetic parameters, 5000-patient Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the pharmacokinetic profiles for six prolonged-infusion dosing regimens. The probability of target attainment (PTA) was calculated at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.06μg/mL to 32μg/mL, and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was calculated for six Gram-negative pathogens using MIC data from the Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) (2005–2007, USA). The pharmacodynamic target was free cefepime concentrations remaining above the MIC for 60% of the dosing interval (60% fT>MIC). Mean±standard deviation maximum and minimum serum concentrations, terminal elimination half-life, elimination rate constant, volume of distribution and systemic clearance of cefepime were 32.5±13.5μg/mL, 9.5±5.2μg/mL, 2.4±0.7h, 0.316±0.116h⁻¹, 21.3±6.5L and 6.6±3.6L/h, respectively. At the susceptibility breakpoint of 8μg/mL, the PTA was >90% for 1g and 2g q8h (4-h infusion) and 1g and 2g every 6h (q6h) (3-h infusion). For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the CFR was 88.6% for 1g q8h (4-h infusion) and ≥92.7% for 2g q8h (4-h infusion) and 1g and 2g q6h (3-h infusion). Cefepime 1g q8h infused over 4h provides excellent target attainment for susceptible bacterial pathogens with MICs≤8μg/mL.
Agid:
995404